References

Unless otherwise specified, all of the below referenced Internet links were accessible as of 22 October 2001

Published Sources

Adelman, Howard, ‘Genocidists And Saviours in Rwanda’, in Other Voices Vol. 2, No. 1 (February 2000), also available at http://www.othervoices.org/2.1/adelman/rwanda.html

Africa Confidential, ‘The king speaks out’, Vol. 37, No. 14 (5 July 1996), pp. 5-6

AfroAmerica Network, ‘Heightened Cronyism and Power Struggle within RPF’, 29 March 2001, at http://www.afroamerica.net/afroamerica.html

AfroAmerica Network, ‘International Media, Corruption, and Traffic of influence’, 10 June 2001, at http://www.afroamerica.net/afroamerica.html

AfroAmerica Network, ‘Joseph Mugenga, a new casualty of Power Struggle within RPF’, 25 April 2001, at http://www.afroamerica.net/afroamerica.html

AfroAmerica Network, ‘Kagame's visit causes an uproar in USA’, 31 January 2001, at http://www.afroamerica.net/afroamerica.html

AfroAmerica Network, ‘Kajeguhakwa, the new RPF casualty’, 31 July 2001, at http://www.afroamerica.net/afroamerica.html

AfroAmerica Network, ‘RPF delegates on recruiting and public relations spree’, 4 May 2001, at http://www.afroamerica.net/afroamerica.html

AfroAmerica Network, ‘Rwanda, International Media, Corruption, and Traffic of influence’, 10 June 2001, at http://www.afroamerica.net/afroamerica.html

Agence France Presse, ‘Découverte d'un gisement de coltan au Rwanda’, 21 Jan 2001

Agence France Presse, ‘Rwanda and Uganda reject report into plundering of DRC’, 4 May 2001

Aktuelt (Copenhagen), ‘125.000 lyserøde fanger venter’, 28 December 2000, also available at http://www.willum.com/artikler/aktuelt28dec00.htm

Aktuelt (Copenhagen), ‘Dansk projekt under pres’, 28 December 2000, also available at http://www.willum.com/artikler/aktuelt28dec00B.htm

Aktuelt (Copenhagen), ‘Krig og fattigdom i hvert tredje land’, 16 June 2000

Aktuelt (Copenhagen), ‘Ny kritisk efterforskning af Rwanda-massakren’, 17 April 2000, available in English translation at http://www.willum.com/articles/aktuelt17april2000_1/index.htm

Aktuelt (Copenhagen), ‘Oprørsleder bekræfter, hvad udenlandske donors afviser: Uganda plyndrer Congo’, 22 January 2001, also available at http://www.willum.com/artikler/aktuelt22jan01.htm, and in English translation at http://www.willum.com/articles/aktuelt22jan2001/index.htm

Amnesty International, Democratic Republic of Congo: Rwandese-controlled east: Devastating human toll, Report No. AFR 62/011/2001, 19 June 2001, at http://web.amnesty.org/ai.nsf/Index/AFR620112001?OpenDocument&of=COUNTRIES%5CRWANDA

Amnesty International, DRC: Deadly alliances in Congolese forests, Report No. AFR 62/33/1997, 3 December 1997, at http://www.web.amnesty.org/ai.nsf/index/AFR620331997

Amnesty International, Great Lakes Region: Refugees Denied Protection, Report No. AFR 02/02/00, May 2000, at http://www.web.amnesty.org/ai.nsf/index/AFR020022000

Amnesty International, Killing Human Decency, Report No. AFR 62/07/00, 31 May 2000, at http://www.amnesty.org/ailib/aipub/2000/SUM/16200700.htm

Amnesty International, Rwanda: The troubled course of justice, Report No. AFR 47/015/2000, 26 April 2000, at http://web.amnesty.org/ai.nsf/Index/AFR470152000?OpenDocument&of=COUNTRIES\RWANDA

André, Catherine, and Marysse, Stefaan, ‘Guerre et Pillage Economique en Republique Democratique du Congo’, in Reyntjens, Filip, and Marysse, Stefaan, eds., L’Afrique des Grands Lacs. Annuaire 2000-2001, forthcoming

André, Catherine, and Tierens, Michel, ‘Les Limites Structurelles de L’Economie Rwandaise Face aux Reformes Economiques et a L’integration Regionale’, in Reyntjens, Filip, and Marysse, Stefaan, eds., L’Afrique des Grands Lacs. Annuaire 1999-2000 (Paris: L’Harmattan, 2000), pp. 55-74

André, Catherine, and Tierens, Michel, ‘Role de L’aide dans la Relance et la Stabilite Economique de Procedure du Rwanda’, in Reyntjens, Filip, and Marysse, Stefaan, eds., L’Afrique des Grands Lacs. Annuaire 1998-1999 (Paris: L’Harmattan, 1999), pp. 66-100

Associated Press, ‘Rwanda Blocks New Political Party’, 31 May 2001

Associated Press, ‘Search for high-tech ore fuels Congo's war’, 8 April 2001

Association Africaine de Défense des droits de l’Homme, République Démocratique du Congo: Une guerre prétexte au pillage des ressources et aux violations des droits de l’Homme, 2000 annual report, April 2001, at www.congoline.com/asadho.actu/html

Bayart, Jean-Francois, Ellis, Stephen, and Hibou, Béatrice, The Criminalization of the State in Africa (Bloomington and Oxford: Indiana University Press and James Curry, 1999)

BBC News Online, ‘Analysis: Why Bizimungu Mattered’, 23 March 2000, at http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/africa/newsid_688000/688587.stm

BBC News Online, ‘Congo rebels clash over mining town’, 20 November 2000, at http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/africa/newsid_1032000/1032393.stm

BBC News Online, ‘High turnout in Rwanda poll’, 30 March 1999, at http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/africa/newsid_306000/306680.stm#top

BBC News Online, ‘Rwanda denies using forced labour’, 22 March 2001, at http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/africa/newsid_1235000/1235293.stm

BBC News Online, ‘Rwanda ex-president under arrest’, 31 May 2001, at http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/africa/newsid_1361000/1361820.stm

BBC News Online, ‘Rwandan PM resigns in corruption row’, 28 February 2000, at http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/africa/newsid_659000/659842.stm

BBC News Online, ‘Rwandan police admit former minister missing’, 2 May 2001, at http://news6.thdo.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/africa/newsid%5F1308000/1308867.stm

Belgium, National Bank of, Institut des Comptes Nationaux, selected import statistics made available to the author by Tom De Herdt, University of Antwerp

Bundegaard, Anita Bay, ‘Danmark og bistanden til Uganda’, in Aktuelt (Copenhagen), 30 January 2001

Burkhalter, Holly J., ‘The Question of Genocide: The Clinton Administration and Rwanda,’ World Policy Journal Vol. 11, No. 4 (Winter 1994-95), pp. 44-54

Business Day, unnamed article, 17 December 1999, quoted at http://www.docuweb.ca/SouthAfrica/news/990714.html

Business Times Online, ‘MTN safari reaches Rwanda’, 15 February 1998, at http://www.btimes.co.za/98/0215/comp/comp12.htm

Buzan, Barry, People, States and Fear: An Agenda for International Security Studies in the Post-Cold War Era (London: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1999)

Callamard, Agnes, ‘French policy in Rwanda’, in Adelman, Howard, and Suhrke, Astri, The Rwanda Crisis from Uganda to Zaire: The Path of a Genocide (London: Transaction Publishers, 1999), pp. 157-183

Centre de Lutte Contre L’impunite et L’injustice au Rwanda, Rwanda: Assassinat de Monsieur Pasteur Musabe a Yaounde, Communique No. 48/99, 22 February 1999, available at http://home.worldonline.be/~mathiasc/com48.html

Chabal, Patrick, and Daloz, Jean-Pascal, Africa Works: Disorder as Political Instrument (Oxford: James Currrey, 1999)

Chicago Tribune, ‘Torrents of civil war pound ravaged Congo: Nation of riches impoverished by legacy of greed’, 10 December 2000, also available at http://www.pulitzer.org/year/2001/international-reporting/works/congo1.html

Chopra, Jarat; Eknes, Åge; and Nordbø, Toralv, ‘Fighting for Hope in Somalia’, Journal of Humanitarian Assistance, no volume (October 1996), at http://www.jha.ac/articles/a007.htm

Christian Science Monitor, ‘Behind the Congo war: diamonds’, 16 August 1998, also available at http://www.csmonitor.com/durable/1999/08/16/fp1s4-csm.shtml

Christian Science Monitor, 'Missing Refugees Found in Zaire – Despite US Claim', 16 January 1997

CNN.com, ‘Warrant out for Rwandan Ex-PM’, 11 April 2001, at http://www.cnn.com/2001/WORLD/africa/04/11/rwanda.arrest

Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa, Rwandan Banking Information, memorandum, n.d., at http://www.comesa.int/states/rwanda/qrwabact.htm

Corriera della Serra, ‘La guerra del minerale misterioso Migliaia di morti in Congo per il Coltan, la sabbia nera "più preziosa dell' oro"’, 26 April 2001

Daily Mail & Guardian, ‘Rwigema resigns as Rwanda's Prime Minister’, 28 February 2000, also available at http://www.mg.co.za/mg/news/2000feb2/28feb-rwanda.html

Daily Mail & Guardian, ‘The economics of financing war in Africa’, 20 October 1999, also available at http://www.mg.co.za/mg/news/99oct2/20oct-war.html

Doctors Without Borders – USA, Forced Flight: A Brutal Strategy of Elimination in Eastern Zaire, Report, 27 May 1997

Dorsey, Michael, ‘Violence and Power-Building in Post-Genocide Rwanda’, in Doom, Ruddy, and Gorus, Jan, eds., Politics of Identity and Economics of Conflict in the Great Lakes Region (Brussels: VUB University Press, 2000), pp. 311-348

Drop the Debt, ’Where we're at - a Drop the Debt briefing’, n.d., at http://www.dropthedebt.org/background/briefing.shtml

East African, ‘EU Reviewing Aid to States in Armed Conflict’, 27 November 2000, also available at http://www.nationaudio.com/News/EastAfrican/03122000/Regional/Regional17.html

East African, ‘How MTN Modernised Uganda's Phone Network’, 4 December 2000, also available at http://www.nationaudio.com/News/EastAfrican/11122000/Business/Business12.html

East African, ‘RPA Soldiers Walk Home from Congo’, 14 August 2000

East African, ‘RPF Split Over Alleged Bias in Handing Out Govt Jobs’, 2 October 2000, also available at http://www.nationaudio.com/News/EastAfrican/08102000/Regional/Regional17.html

East African, ‘Rwanda, Congo Rebels Seek Fighter Jets’, 6 October 1999, also available at http://www.nationaudio.com/News/EastAfrican/041099/Regional/Regional7.html

East African,Rwandans Trickling back home’, 1 jan 2001, also available at http://www.nationaudio.com/News/EastAfrican/08012001/Regional/Regional30.html

East African, ‘Trim Spending or Risk Aid Cut, Kigali Told’, 13 November 2000, also available at http://www.nationaudio.com/News/EastAfrican/19112000/Regional/Regional15.html

Economist Intelligence Unit, Country Report Rwanda, 1 February 2001

Economist Intelligence Unit, Country Report Rwanda, 1 November 2000 Economist Intelligence Unit, Country Report Rwanda, 1 October 1999

Economist Intelligence Unit, Country Report Rwanda, 10 April 2000

Economist Intelligence Unit, Country Report Rwanda, 26 January 2000

Economist Intelligence Unit, Country Report Rwanda, 30 April 1999

Economist Intelligence Unit, EIU Country Profile 2000: Rwanda Burundi (London: Economist Intelligence Unit, 2000)

Economist Intelligence Unit, EIU Country Profile 2001: Rwanda Burundi (London: Economist Intelligence Unit, 2001)

Electronic Mail and Guardian, ‘Genocide continues behind Kabila's lines’, 20 June 1997, at http://www.mg.co.za/mg/news/97june2/20june-genocide.html

Eltringham, Nigel, and Hoyweghen, Saskia Van, ‘Power and Identity in Post-Genocide Rwanda’, in Doom, Ruddy, and Gorus, Jan, eds., Politics of Identity and Economics of Conflict in the Great Lakes Region (Brussels: VUB University Press, 2000), pp. 215-242

Executive Intelligence Review, ‘Rice caught in Iran-Contra-style capers in Africa’, 20 November 1998, at http://www.larouchepub.com/other/1998/rice_2546.html

File on Four, BBC Radio 4, 10 July 2001, transcript available at http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/progs/genre/transcripts/fileonfourmobilephones.pdf

Garreton, Robert, ‘The massacres in former Zaire: Mission impossible’, in Le Monde Diplomatique, December 1997, also available at http://www.en.monde-diplomatique.fr/1997/12/garreton

Gowing, Nik, Dispatches from Disaster Zones – The Reporting of Humanitarian Emergencies, Conference Paper, London, 27 May 1998, also available at ftp://63.104.169.22/events/managing-info-chaos/gowing.pdf

Guardian, ‘British aid to help armies reform’, 17 February 2000, also available at http://www.guardian.co.uk/Archive/Article/0,4273,3964363,00.html

Guardian, ‘Nation in waiting Row [sic!] over delay in debt relief for Uganda’, 22 May 2000, also available at http://www.guardian.co.uk/Archive/Article/0,4273,4020727,00.html

Guardian, ‘Rwanda needs debt relief to seal peace: Oxfam’, 22 July 1999, also available at http://www.guardian.co.uk/Archive/Article/0,4273,3885363,00.html

Halliwell, Christine, and Hindes, Barry, ‘"Culture", "society" and the figure of man’, History of the Human Sciences Vol. 12, No. 4 (1999), pp. 1-20

Hancock, Graham, Lords of poverty: The Free-wheeling Lifestyles, Power, Prestige and Corruption of the Multi-Billion Dollar Aid Business (London: Macmillan, 1989)

Hirondelle Foundation, ‘Sendashonga Trio Acquitted of Murder’, 31 May 2001, at http://www.hirondelle.org/hirondelle.nsf/caefd9edd48f5826c12564cf004f793d/4b9ea21c40b3001bc1256609007b2870?OpenDocument

Human Rights Watch, ‘"Attacked by All Sides": Civilians and the War in Eastern Zaire’, Country Report Africa Vol. 9, No. 1 (March 1997)

Human Rights Watch, ‘Eastern Congo Ravaged: Killing Civilians and Silencing Protest’, Country Report Africa Vol. 12, No. 3 (16 May 2000), also available at http://www.hrw.org/reports/2000/drc/Drc005.htm#TopOfPage

Human Rights Watch, ‘Rwanda: The Search for Security and Human Rights Abuses’, Country Report Africa Vol. 12, No. 1 (April 2000), also available at http://www.hrw.org/reports/2000/rwanda

Human Rights Watch, ‘What Kabila is Hiding: Civilian Killings and Impunity in Congo’, Country Report Africa Vol. 9, no. 5 (October 1997), also available at http://www.hrw.org/reports97/congo

Human Rights Watch, ’Arming Rwanda’, Country Report Africa Vol. 6, no. 1 (January 1994)

Human Rights Watch, ’Rearming with Impunity: International Support for the Perpetrators of the Rwandan Genocide’, Country Report Africa Vol. 7, no. 4 (May 1995)

Human Rights Watch, Leave None to Tell the Story: Genocide in Rwanda (New York: Human Rights Watch, 1999), also available at http://www.hrw.org/reports/1999/rwanda

Human Rights Watch, Protectors or Pretenders? Government Human Rights Commissions in Africa (New York: Human Rights Watch, 2001), also available at http://www.hrw.org/reports/2001/africa/index.html

Human Rights Watch, Uprooting the Rural Poor in Rwanda (New York: Human Rights Watch, 2001), also available at http://www.hrw.org/reports/2001/rwanda

Human Rights Watch, World Report 2001 (New York: Human Rights Watch, 2001), also available at http://www.hrw.org/wr2k1/index.html

Industry Standard Magazine, ‘A Call to Arms’, 11 June 2001, also available at http://www.thestandard.com/article/0,1902,26784,00.html?printer_friendly

Information (Copenhagen), ‘Hør, hvad blev der af 200.000 flygtninge?’, 16 February 1999, also available at http://www.information.dk/Indgang/VisArkiv.dna?pArtNo=19990216s07a01

Information (Copenhagen), ‘Rwanda-rapport kunne have reddet liv’, 28 June 1999, also available at http://www.information.dk/Indgang/VisArkiv.dna?pArtNo=19990628s03a01

Information (Copenhagen), ’500.000 flygtninge forsvundet på en dag’, 25 July 2000, also available at http://www.information.dk/Indgang/VisArkiv.dna?pArtNo=20000725s06a01; English translation available at http://www.willum.com/articles/information25jul00/index.htm

Information (Copenhagen), ’FN holdt 'modfolkemord' i Rwanda skjult’, 21 June 1999, also available at http://www.information.dk/Indgang/VisArkiv.dna?pArtNo=19990621s03a01; English translation available at http://www.willum.com/articles/information21jun99/index.htm

Information (Copenhagen), ’Kabila slipper billigt fra massakrer’, 31 July 1998, also available at http://www.information.dk/Indgang/VisArkiv.dna?pArtNo=19980731s05a01

Information (Copenhagen), ’Nielson: Rwanda skal have ro’, 23 June 1999, also available at http://www.information.dk/Indgang/VisArkiv.dna?pArtNo=19990623s01a05

Institute for International and Strategic Studies, The Military Balance 2000-2001 (London: Oxford University Press, October 2001)

International Crisis Group, Scramble for the Congo: Anatomy of an Ugly War, Africa Report N° 26, 20 December 2000, at http://www.crisisweb.org/projects/showreport.cfm?reportid=130

International Development Association, Rwanda: Country Assistance Strategy - Progress Report, IDA/R99-135, 11 June 1999

International Development Association, Rwanda: Economic Recovery Credit, Washington, 9 March 1999

International Monetary Fund, African Department, Rwanda: Midterm Review under the First Annual Arrangement Under the Enhance Structural Adjustment Facility and Request for Waiver of Nonobservance of Performance Criteria, 26 February 1998

International Monetary Fund, African Department, Rwanda-Staff Report for the 2000 Article IV Consultation and Requests for the Third Annual Arrangement Under the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility and for Extension of Commitment Period, 11 December 2000

International Monetary Fund, IMF Concludes Article IV Consultation with Rwanda, Public Information Notice (PIN) No. 01/31, 27 March 2001, at http://www.imf.org/external/np/sec/pn/2001/pn0131.htm

International Monetary Fund, Rwanda – Midterm Review Under the First Annual Arrangement Under the Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility and Request for Waiver of Nonobservance of Performance Criteria, EBS/99/22, 26 February 1999

International Monetary Fund, Rwanda to Receive US$810 Million in Debt Service Relief: The IMF and World Bank Support Debt Relief for Rwanda Under the Enhanced HIPC Initiative, Press Release no. 00/84, 22 Dec 2000, at http://www.imf.org/external/np/sec/pr/2000/pr0084.htm

International Monetary Fund, Rwanda: Statistical Appendix, Country Report no. 01/30, 5 February 2001, at http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/scr/2001/cr0130.pdf

International Peace Information Service, ‘Mineral Exports by RCD-Goma in 2000’, Central Africa Minerals and Arms Research Bulletin Edition 1 (14 June 2001), at http://www.diamondstudies.com/docs/camarb1.html

International Rescue Committee, Mortality Study, Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (February-April 2001), 8 May 2001, at http://www.theirc.org/news/display.cfm?releaseID=85

Internationalist, ‘Congo: Neo-Colonialism Made in U.S.A.’, September-October 1997, also available at http://www.internationalist.org/congo4.html

Internews, ‘Analysis: The Trial of Sendashonga’s Assassins’, 18 December 2000, available at http://www.internews.org/activities/ICTR_reports/ICTRnewsDec00.html#1218b

Jackson, Robert H., Quasi-states: Sovereignty, International Relations and the Third World (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990)

Jackson, Stephen, ‘"Our Riches are being Looted!": War Economies and Rumour in the Kivus, D.R. Congo’, Politique Africaine, forthcoming issue

Jennings, Christian, Across the Red River: Rwanda, Burundi & The Heart of Darkness (London: Victor Gollanz, 2000)

Kagiraneza, Deus, My Testimony, undated document, available at http://www.afroamerica.net/rwanda_testimonies.html

Kajeguhakwa, Valens, untitled statement, 23 August 2001, at http://www.afroamerica.net/rwanda_testimonies.html

Kanbur, Ravi, ‘Aid, conditionality and debt in Africa’, in Tarp, Finn, and Hjertholm, Peter, eds., Foreign Aid and Development: Lessons Learnt and Directions for the Future (London: Routledge, 2000), pp. 409-422

Keesing, Roger M., Cultural Anthropology: A Comtemporary Perspective (New York: Holt, Rhinehart and Winston, 1976)

Kennes, Erik, ‘Le secteur minier au Congo: ‘déconnexion’ et descente aux enfers’, in Reyntjens, Filip, and Marysse, Stefaan, eds. L’Afrique des Grands Lacs. Annuaire 1999-2000 (Paris: L’Harmattan, 2000)

Klingebiel, Stephan, Impact of Development Cooperation in Conflict Situations: Cross-section Report on Evaluations of German Development Cooperation in Six Countries, Reports and Working Papers 6/1999 (Berlin: German Development Institute, 1999)

Krasner, Stephen, Sovereignty: Organized Hypocrisy (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1999)

La Libre Belgique, ‘"On est injuste avec le Rwanda"’, 26 October 1999

La Libre Belgique, ‘A qui profite le coltan de l’est congolais?’, 23 December 2000

La Libre Belgique, ‘Après la reconstruction, la stagnation’, 2 November 1999

La Libre Belgique, ‘Des sociétés belges impliquées dans le trafic de coltan’, 12 April 2001

La Libre Belgique, ‘Les Rwandais pillent-ils le Congo?’, 25 October 1999

La Libre Belgique, ‘Trop de dépenses militaires’, 2 November 1999

Le Monde Diplomatique, ‘Rivalités dans les Grands Lacs’, map, May 2000, at http://www.monde-diplomatique.fr/cartes

Le Soir, ‘Les pistes du coltan remontent à Bruxelles´, 13 April 2001

Lemarchand, René, ‘The Fire in the Great Lakes’, Current History Vol. 98, no. 628 (May 1999), pp. 195-201

Madsen, Wayne, Suffering and Despair: Humanitarian Crisis in the Congo, prepared statement before the US House of Representatives, Subcommittee on International Operations and Human Rights, Committee on International Relations, 17 May 2001, available at http://www.house.gov/international_relations/mads0517.htm

Månedsbladet Press, ‘Et afrikansk bistandsparadis - et brutalt netværk af berigelsesforbrydere’, October 2000, also available at http://www.willum.com/artikler/pressokt00C.htm

Melvern, Linda, A People Betrayed: The Role of the West in Rwanda’s Genocide (London: Zed Books, 2000)

Handel, Michael, Weak States in the International System (London: Frank Cass, 1981)

Mikkelsen, Jakob Eilsøe, ’Rwanda - analyse af et sammenbrud’, Politica Vol. 29, no. 2 (1997)

Monitor (Kampala), ‘Journalist Seeks Protection In Uganda’, 14 September 2000

Mugabe, Jean-Pierre, ‘The Killings Resume: Preparing for the Next Rwandan War’, Strategic Policy Vol. 27, no. 4 (1999), pp. 4-7, also available at http://www.strategicstudies.org/crisis/rwanda.htm#Uganda-Rwanda

Mugabe, Jean-Pierre, Declaration on the Shooting Down of the Aircraft Carrying Rwandan Declaration on the Shooting Down of the Aircraft Carrying Rwandan President Juvénal Habyalimina and Burundi President Cyprien Ntaryamira on April 6, 1994, 21 April 2000, available at http://www.multimania.com/obsac/OBSV3N16-PlaneCrash94.html

Mugabe, Jean-Pierre, Itangazo: Mbwirire Gen. Major Kagame Paul Ku Karubanda Amarorerwa Rwanda Uzize, open letter to Major-General Paul Kagame, available in French translation at http://www.geocities.com/iwacu.geo/jaccuse.html

Mugabi, John, and Kanuma, Shyaka, Dossier Journal Newsline, statement circulated as e-mail medio January 2001, n.d., available at http://www.multimania.com/obsac/OBSV3N16-DOSattentHabyari.html

National Intelligence Council, The US-Soviet Competition for Influence in the Third World: How the LDCs Play It, Memorandum 82-10005, 1982

National Post, ‘"Explosive" leak on Rwanda genocide’, 1 March 2000, also available at http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/35/134.html

Netherlands, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Development aid countries now "18+4", Press Release, n.d., at http://www.minbuza.nl/english/Content.asp?key=310533&pad=257569,257774

New York Times, ‘In Congo, Forbidding Terrain Hides a Calamity’, 1 June 1997, also available at http://www2.minorisa.es/inshuti/atrociti.htm

Oanda FXTrade History, selected statistics on currency rates, available at http://www.oanda.com/convert/fxhistory

Observatoire Gouvernance-Transparance, Guerre en RDC: Enjeux économiques: Intérêts et Acteurs, 10 April 2000, at http://www.c-df.org/tribune_raisons_guerre.html

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Development Co-operation Directorate, DAC Statistical Reporting Directives, 2000, at http://www1.oecd.org/dac/htm/dacdir.htm

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Geographical Distribution of Financial Flows to Aid Recipients: 1995/1999 (Paris: Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, 2001)

Organization of African Unity, International Panel of Eminent Personalities to Investigate the 1994 Genocide in Rwanda and the Surrounding Events, Rwanda: The Preventable Genocide, Project Document, 7 July 2000, available at http://www.oau-oua.org/Document/ipep/ipep.htm

Otunnu, Ogenga, ‘An Historical Analysis of the Invasion by the Rwanda Patriotic Army’, in Adelman, Howard, and Suhrke, Astri, The Rwanda Crisis from Uganda to Zaire: The Path of a Genocide (London: Transaction Publishers, 1999), pp. 31-49

Oxfam, Debt relief for Rwanda: an opportunity for peace-building and reconstruction, Policy Paper, n.d., available at http://www.caa.org.au/oxfam/advocacy/debt/rwanda/relief.html#section2

Physicians for Human Rights, Investigations in Eastern Congo and Western Rwanda, Research Report, 16 July 1997, at http://www.phrusa.org/research/health_effects/humcongo.html

Pole Institute and CREDAP, Le Coltan et Les Populations du Nord-Kivu, Research Report, February 2001, n.p., at http://www.obsac.com/OBSV4N11-PoleInstColtan.html

Politikens Netavis, ’Hård dansk kritik af bistandsrapport fra Verdensbanken’, 27 March 2001, at http://politiken.dk/VisArtikel.sasp?PageID=153919

Prunier, Gérard, ‘Opération Turquoise: A Humanitarian Escape from a Political Dead End’, in Adelman, Howard, and Suhrke, Astri, The Rwanda Crisis from Uganda to Zaire: The Path of a Genocide (London: Transaction Publishers, 1999), pp. 281-305

Prunier, Gèrard, The Rwanda Crisis: History of a Genocide (London: Hurst, 1998), third edition

Prunier, Gèrard, The Rwanda Crisis: History of a Genocide (New York: Columbia University Press, 1995), first edition

Prunier, Gérard, The Social, Political and Economic Situation, Issue Paper formerly posted on http://www.writenet.org, June 1997, now available at http://www.udayton.edu/~rwanda/articles/prunier.html

Radio Free Europe & Radio Liberty, Swedish Report Emphasizes Role Of Poverty In War, News Article, 20 June 2000, at http://www.rferl.org/nca/features/2000/06/F.RU.000620135251.html

Reno, William, War, Debt and the Role of Pretending in Uganda’s International Relations, Occassional Paper at the Centre for African Studies, University of Copenhagen, July 2000, available at http://www.teol.ku.dk/cas/Occ_Reno_internetver.doc

Reno, William, Warlord Politics and African States (Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1998)

Reuters, ‘Disquiet Stirs in Tightly Ruled Rwanda’, 29 May 2001

Reuters, ‘Forget Congo - Rwanda enjoys its own mining boom’, 12 June 2001

Reuters, ‘Sanctions on Congo aggressors "no problem" – Chirac’, 19 May 2001

Reuters, 8 June 1997, ‘U.S. Envoy Says New Congo Killings Must Stop’, also available at http://www.freerepublic.com/forum/a1002549.htm

Reyntjens, Filip, La Guerre des Grands Lacs : Alliances mouvantes et conflits extraterritoriaux en Afrique centrale (Paris: L’Harmattan, 1999)

Reyntjens, Filip, Rwanda: trois jours qui ont fait basculer l’histoire (Paris: L'Harmattan, 1995)

Reyntjens, Filip, Talking or Fighting? Political Evolution in Rwanda and Burundi (Uppsala: Afrikainstitutet, 1999) (Current African Issues no. 21)

Rombouts, Luc, Diamond Annual Review – 2000, n.d., at http://www.terraconsult.be/overview.htm

Rwanda Newsline, ‘The implication of lawyers arrest and detention’, 14 May 2001

Rwanda, Government of, Reaction of the Government of Rwanda to the Report of the Panel of Experts on the Illegal Exploitation of Natural Resources and other Forms of Wealth of the Democratic Republic of Congo, Press Release, 22 April 2001, at http://www.rwanda1.com/government/04_22_01news_Responce_To_UN_Report.htm

Rwanda, Government of, Reply to Human Rights Watch Report "Rwanda: The Search for Human Rights and Security", Press Release, May 2000, at http://www.rwanda1.com/government/HRWresponce.htm

Rwigyema, Pierre-Celestin, Ikibazo cya Kongo-Zayire, testimony on the war in the Congo, January 2001, at http://www.afroamerica.net/rwanda_testimonies.html

Ryan’s Notes, all issues from 3 January 1995 to 17 August 2001, also available at http://www.ryansnotes.com

Steven, David, ‘Explaining Third World Alignment’, World Politics Vol. 43, no. 2 (January 1991), pp. 233-256

Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), SIPRI Yearbook 2000: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000)

Stockton, Nicholas, 'The Great Vanishing Trick', Crosslines, Spring 1997, also available at http://www.oxfam.org.uk/atwork/emerg/crosslin.htm

Strizek, Helmut, Kongo/Zaïre – Ruanda – Burundi: Stabilität durch eneute Militärherrschaft? (München: Weltforum Verlag, 1998) (Afrika Studien no. 125)

Sunday Telegraph, ‘New address but business as usual for Africa's "'merchant of death"’, 22 July 2001

Tageszeitung, ’Deutsches Geld für Kongos Krieg’, 4 April 2001, also available at http://www.taz.de/tpl/2001/04/04/a0090.nf/stext.Name,askhxapTj.idx,0

Tageszeitung, ’Erzfeinde im Coltan-Rausch’, 22 December 2001, also available at http://www.taz.de/tpl/2000/12/22/a0078.nf/stext.Name,askfcfEmH.idx,0

Tangri, Robert, and Mwenda, Andrew, ‘Corruption and Cronyism in Uganda's privatization in the 1990s’, African Affairs Vol. 100, no. 398 (January 2001), pp.117-133, also available at http://www3.oup.co.uk/afrafj/hdb/Volume_100/Issue_398/pdf/1000117.pdf

The Economist, ‘Thousands of Hutu refugees went missing in Congo in 1996. What happened to them?’, 23 December 2000

The New York Times, 'In Congo, Forbidding Terrain Hides a Calamity', 1 June 1999

Tilly, Charles, Coercion, Capital and European States, AD 990-1990 (London: Basil Blackwell, 1990)

United Kingdom, Department for International Development, Building support for Rwandas development, Press Release, 26 September 2000, also available at http://www.dfid.gov.uk/public/news/pr26sept00b.html

United Kingdom, Department for International Development, Rwanda: Country Strategy Paper 1999, September 1999, also available at http://www.dfid.gov.uk/public/what/strategy_papers/rwanda_csp.html

United Kingdom, Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Adjournment Debate on the Great Lakes, speech by British Minister of State for Foreign Affairs and the Commonwealth, Peter Hain, London, 14 November 2000, at http://www.fco.gov.uk/news/newstext.asp?4378

United Kingdom, House of Commons, All Party Parliamentary Group on Rwanda, the Great Lakes Region and the Prevention of Genocide, Visit to Democratic Republic of Congo 2nd - 6th August 2001, forthcoming

United Kingdom, Immigration and Nationality Directorate, Country Information and Policy Unit, Rwanda Assessment, April 2001, also available at http://www.ind.homeoffice.gov.uk/default.asp?PageId=191

United Nations, Economic and Social Council, Commission on Human Rights, Report on the situation of human rights in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, submitted by the Special Rapporteur, Mr. Roberto Garretón, in accordance with Commission on Human Rights resolution 1999/56, E/CN.4/2000/42, 18 January 2000, also available at http://www.unhchr.ch/Huridocda/Huridoca.nsf/0/87cbe9be9dc541db802568b300561be2/$FILE/G0010229.pdf

United Nations, Economic and Social Council, Commission on Human Rights, Report on the situation of human rights in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (former Zaire), submitted by the Special Rapporteur, Mr. Roberto Garretón, in accordance with Commission resolution 1997/58, E/CN.4/1998/65, 30 January 1998, also available at http://www.hri.ca/fortherecord1998/documentation/commission/e-cn4-1998-65.htm

United Nations, Economic and Social Council, Commission on Human Rights, Report on the situation of human rights in Zaire, prepared by the Special Rapporteur, Mr. Roberto Garretón, in accordance with Commission resolution 1996/77, E/CN.4/1998/65, 28 January 1997, also available at http://www.hri.ca/fortherecord1997/documentation/commission/e-cn4-1997-6.htm

United Nations, Economic and Social Council, Commission on Human Rights, Report on the situation of human rights in Zaire, prepared by the Special Rapporteur, Mr. Roberto Garretón, in accordance with Commission resolution 1998/61, E/CN.4/1999/31, 8 February 1999, also available at http://www.unhchr.ch/Huridocda/Huridoca.nsf/(Symbol)/E.CN.4.1999.31.En?OpenDocument

United Nations, Economic and Social Council, Commission on Human Rights, Report of the Special Rapporteur Charged with Investigating the Situation of Human Rights in the Republic of Zaïre, Pursuant to Commission on Human Rights Resolution UN 1997/58, A/51/942, 2 July 1997

United Nations, Economic and Social Council, Commission on Human Rights, Report on the mission carried out by Mr. Roberto Garretón, Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, from 11 to 21 March 2001, E/CN.4/2001/40/Add.1, 27 March 2001, also available at http://www.unhchr.ch/Huridocda/Huridoca.nsf/(Symbol)/E.CN.4.2001.40.Add.1.En?OpenDocument

United Nations, General Assembly, Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, Resolution 260 (III) A, 9 December 1948, also available http://www.preventgenocide.org/law/convention/text.htm

United Nations, Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, Integrated Regional Information Network for Central and Eastern Africa (IRIN-CEA), ‘Rwanda: EU restores development cooperation’, 10 March 2000, at http://www.reliefweb.int/IRIN/cea/countrystories/rwanda/20000310.htm

United Nations, Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, Integrated Regional Information Network for Central and Eastern Africa (IRIN-CEA), ‘Rwanda: UN and other donors approve governance fund’, 11 December 2000, at http://www.reliefweb.int/IRIN/cea/countrystories/rwanda/20001211.phtml

United Nations, Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, Integrated Regional Information Network for Central and Eastern Africa (IRIN-CEA), ‘Rwanda: Economic basic sound, poverty issues remain’, 22 January 2001, at http://www.reliefweb.int/IRIN/cea/countrystories/rwanda/20010122.phtml

United Nations, Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, Integrated Regional Information Network for Central and Eastern Africa (IRIN-CEA), ‘Rwanda: Donors urge pullout from DRC’, 9 November 2000,at http://www.reliefweb.int/IRIN/cea/countrystories/rwanda/20001109.phtml

United Nations, Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, Integrated Regional Information Network for Central and Eastern Africa (IRIN-CEA), ‘Rwanda: Economic basic sound, poverty issues remain’, 22 January 2001, at http://www.reliefweb.int/IRIN/cea/countrystories/rwanda/20010122.phtml

United Nations, Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, Integrated Regional Information Network for Central and Eastern Africa (IRIN-CEA), ‘Commissioner calls for cut in military spending’, 10 March 2000, at http://www.reliefweb.int/IRIN/cea/countrystories/rwanda/20000310.htm

United Nations, Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, Integrated Regional Information Network for Central and Eastern Africa (IRIN-CEA), ‘UN and other donors approve governance fund’, 11 December 2000, at http://stone.cidi.org/humanitarian/irin/ceafrica/00b/0028.html

United Nations, Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, Integrated Regional Information Network for Central and Eastern Africa (IRIN-CEA), ‘Rwanda: International community "merciless" – Kagame’, 9 April 2001, at http://www.reliefweb.int/IRIN/cea/countrystories/rwanda/20010409.phtml

United Nations, Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, Integrated Regional Information Network for Central and Eastern Africa (IRIN-CEA), ‘Weekly Roundup of Main Events in the Great Lakes region’, 13 October 1996, at http://stone.cidi.org/humanitarian/glr/96b/0038.html

United Nations, Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, Integrated Regional Information Network for Central and Eastern Africa (IRIN-CEA), ‘Rwanda: $6.7 million pledge for education and civil service programmes’, 24 August 1999, at http://www.reliefweb.int/IRIN/cea/countrystories/rwanda/19990824.htm

United Nations, Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, Integrated Regional Information Network for Central and Eastern Africa (IRIN-CEA), DRC: UN rapporteur condemns Bunia violence’, 29 January 2001, at http://www.reliefweb.int/IRIN/cea/countrystories/drc/20010129f.phtml

United Nations, Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, Integrated Regional Information Network for Central and Eastern Africa (IRIN-CEA), ‘DRC: IRIN Interview with RCD-ML official Mbusa Nyamwisi’, 3 August 2001, at http://www.reliefweb.int/w/rwb.nsf/9ca65951ee22658ec125663300408599/5a6722fc99c5b58d85256a9d00521c49?OpenDocument

United Nations, Security Council, Addendum to the final report of the Monitoring Mechanism on Sanctions against UNITA, S/2001/363, 18 April 2001, also available at http://www.un.org/Docs/sc/committees/Angola/363e.pdf

United Nations, Security Council, Final report of the Monitoring Mechanism on Angola Sanctions Mechanism, UN document number S/2000/1225, 21 December 2000, also available at http://www.un.org/Depts/dpa/docs/Monitoring%20final.PDF and http://www.reliefweb.int/w/rwb.nsf/vID/876DFC2A50B5C0B9C12569C8003FD43B?OpenDocument

United Nations, Security Council, Report of the Panel of Experts on the Illegal Exploitation of Natural Resources and Other Forms of Wealth of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, S/2001/357, 12 April 2001, also available at http://www.un.org/News/dh/latest/drcongo.htm

United States, Department of Defense, Report to Congress on U.S. Military Activities in Rwanda, 1994 - August 1997, available at http://www.defenselink.mil/pubs/rwanda/index.html

United States, Geological Survey, Columbium (Niobium) and Tantalum, 1998, at http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/myb

United States, Geological Survey, Mineral Commodity Summaries: 2001 (Washington: US Government Printing Office, 2001), also available at http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/mcs

United States, Geological Survey, The Mineral Industry of Congo (Kinshasa) - 1997, Mineral Industry Survey, at http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/africa.html#rw

United States, Geological Survey, The Mineral Industry of Congo (Kinshasa) - 2000, Mineral Industry Survey, at http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/africa.html#rw

United States, Geological Survey, The Mineral Industry of Zaire – 1994, Mineral Industry Survey, at http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/africa.html#rw

United States, State Department, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices – 2000: Rwanda, February 2001, available at http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2000/af/index.cfm?docid=720

United States, State Department, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices – 1999: Rwanda, February 2000, available at http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/1999/index.cfm?docid=266

Uvin, Peter, Aiding Violence: The Development Enterprise in Rwanda (West Hartfort: Kumarian Press, 1998)

Vlassenroot, Koen, ‘Identity and Insecurity: The Building of Ethnic Agendas in South Kivu’, in Doom, Ruddy, and Gorus, Jan, eds., Politics of Identity and Economics of Conflict in the Great Lakes Region (Brussels: VUB University Press, 2000), pp. 263-288

Vrai Papier Journal, ‘Bruguière traque le président rwandais’, October 2000, also available at http://www.obsac.com/OBSV4N10-VPJPean.html, and in English translation at http://www2.minorisa.es/inshuti/bruguiea.htm

Washington Post, ‘Africans Use Training in Unexpected Ways’, 14 July 1998, also available at http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v98/n576/a01.html?347

Washington Post, ‘Rwandans Led Revolt In Congo’, 9 July 1997, also available at http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/inatl/longterm/congo/stories/070997.htm

Washington Post, ‘U.S. Military Role in Rwanda Greater Than Disclosed’, 16 August 1997, also available at http://www.udayton.edu/~rwanda/articles/usrole.html

Washington Post, ‘Vital Ore Funds Congo’s War’, 19 March 2001, also available at http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn?pagename=article&node=digest&contentId=A16657-2001Mar16

Willum, Bjørn, ‘Legitimizing Inaction Towards Genocide in Rwanda: A Matter of Misperception?’, International Peacekeeping Vol. 6, no. 3 (Autumn 1999), pp. 11-30, also available at http://www.willum.com/articles/intpeaceaug1999/index.htm

Winter, Roger P., ‘How Human Rights Groups Miss the Opportunity to Do Good’, in Washington Post, 22 February 1998, also available at www.refugees.org/news/op_eds/022298.htm

World Bank, Assessing Aid: What Works, What Doesn’t, and Why, World Bank Policy Research Report (New York, Oxford University Press, 1998), also available at http://www.worldbank.org/research/aid/aidtoc.htm

World Bank, External Affairs Department, Development News, 14 May 2001, at http://wbln0018.worldbank.org/NEWS/DEVNEWS.NSF/eb730c645da440418525673500723bf3/71094e969c666e4385256a4c004d6e2d?OpenDocument

World Bank, External Affairs Department, Development News, 15 May 2001, at http://wbln0018.worldbank.org/NEWS/DEVNEWS.NSF/eb730c645da440418525673500723bf3/15ec46a0f5eae76285256a4d004a58fa?OpenDocument

World Bank, External Affairs Department, Development News, 2 February 2001, at http://wbln0018.worldbank.org/NEWS/DEVNEWS.NSF/eb730c645da440418525673500723bf3/e3c0da0da815e775852569e7004f1a44?OpenDocument

World Bank, External Affairs Department, Development News, 20 April 2001, at http://wbln0018.worldbank.org/NEWS/DEVNEWS.NSF/eb730c645da440418525673500723bf3/2c86dcf1dc4ca72185256a34004f020d?OpenDocument

World Bank, External Affairs Department, Development News, 22 January 2001, at http://wbln0018.worldbank.org/NEWS/DEVNEWS.NSF/eb730c645da440418525673500723bf3/b900a19c5e954567852569fb005231d6?OpenDocument

World Bank, External Affairs Department, Development News, 5 January 2001, at http://wbln0018.worldbank.org/NEWS/DEVNEWS.NSF/eb730c645da440418525673500723bf3/8376d9a692349421852569cb00519c84?OpenDocument

World Bank, External Affairs Department, Development News, 5 July 2001, at http://wbln0018.worldbank.org/NEWS/DEVNEWS.NSF/eb730c645da440418525673500723bf3/f0128c398bfd5ee185256a80004a7669?OpenDocument&Highlight=2,Kinshasa#Story5

World Bank, External Affairs Department, Development News, 9 June 2000, at http://wbln0018.worldbank.org/NEWS/DEVNEWS.NSF/eb730c645da440418525673500723bf3/20ce7ca0e47b27fe852568f9004aa12c?OpenDocument

World Bank, External Affairs Department, Development News, 9 November 2000, at http://wbln0018.worldbank.org/NEWS/DEVNEWS.NSF/eb730c645da440418525673500723bf3/9f3ffe649923ece185256992004f6342?OpenDocument

World Bank, International Finance Corporation, untitled World Bank Public Information Center (PIC) Operational Document on MTN-Rwandacell, n.d. but was projected to be presented to the ‘International Finance Corporation’s Board of Directors on 25 April 2000, at http://www.worldbank.org/pics/ifcspi/rws9445.txt

World Bank, untitled World Bank Public Information Center (PIC) Operational Document on Economic Recovery Credit to Rwanda, n.d. but was projected to be presented to the World Bank Board of Directors on 9 March 1999, at http://www.worldbank.org/pics/pid/rw57294.txt

World Police Institute, Arms Trade Research Center, Deadly Legacy: U.S. Arms to Africa and the Congo War, Report, January 2000, at http://www.worldpolicy.org/projects/arms/reports/congo.htm

WorldNetDaily.com, ‘Did U.S. Help Zaire’s Rebels?’, 5 May 1997, at http://worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=16481

 

Unpublished Papers

André, Catherine, and Luzolele Lola, Laurent, The European Union’s Aid Policy Towards Countries involved in the Congo: Lever for Peace of Incitement to War?, May 2001

Lemarchand, René, Exclusion, Marginalization and Political Mobilization: Road to Hell in the Great Lakes, December 2000

Lemarchand, René, The Democratic Republic of Congo: From Failed State to Statelessness, December 2000

Reno, William, Stealing Like a Bandit – Stealing Like a State, 2000

 

Private Correspondence to the Author

Coakley, George, United States Geological Survey, 28 September 2001

European Union, Desk officer for Rwanda Alfonso Pascual, Aide Communautaire 2000-2001, 7 May 2001

European Union, Desk officer for Rwanda Alfonso Pascual, Aide Communautaire 1994-1999, 7 May 2001

Ryan’s Notes, 10 August 2001 and 10 September 2001

Rwanda, National Bank of Rwanda, 19 June 2001, available at http://www.willum.com/documents/nationalbankofrwanda19jun01/index.htm

Tack, Luc, Belgian Africa Museum, 8 May 2001

 

Interviews

Interview with RPF politician Tito Rutarimura, Kigali, August 1997

Confidential interview with diplomat, Kigali, August 1997

Interview with western humanitarian worker present in Zaire in 1996, Gisenyi, September 1997

Interview with ex-Rwandan Patriotic Army officer, n.p., 1999

Confidential interview with US Government official, n.p., 1999

Interview with Colonel Luc Marchal, former Deputy Force Commander of the United Nations Assistance Mission in Rwanda (UNAMIR), Brussels, April 2000

Interview with former Prime Minister of Rwanda, Faustain Twagiramungu, Brussels, April 2000

Interview with Sevérin Mugangu, Bukavu, October 2000

Interview with Editor-in-Chief of Rwanda Newsline, John Mugabi, Kigali October 2000; Copenhagen, June 2001; and by telephone, September 2001

Interviews with diamond traders, Kisangani, November 2000

Interviews with journalists based in the region, Rwanda and Congo, November 2000

Confidential telephone interview with Rwandan diplomat, 2000

Confidential telephone interview with former investigator at the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, 2000

Telephone interview with SwissCargo official, 3 May 2001

Telephone interview with Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development official, June 2001

Telephone interview with Catherine André, Antwerpen University, June 2001

Telephone interview with ex-Rwandan Patriotic Army officer, Deus Kagiraneza, June 2001

Interview with former journalist at Rwanda Newsline Ignatius Mugabo, Copenhagen, June 2001

Telephone interview with the Manager of Somikivu, Karl-Heinz Albers, August 2001

Confidential telephone interview with International Monetary Fund officials, 2001